Carbs Linux Documentation
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commit 3d2fd81bc0f085723f63c8692001c6607d4bbe0a
parent 797faa922b45e15b594b16c0ec0be334dec0dec3
Author: Cem Keylan <>
Date:   Tue, 27 Oct 2020 03:05:20 +0300 add new documentation source

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diff --git a/ b/ @@ -0,0 +1,1440 @@ +#+TITLE: Carbs Linux User Manual +#+AUTHOR: Cem Keylan +#+TEXINFO_FILENAME: +#+TEXINFO_DIR_CATEGORY: System Administration +#+TEXINFO_DIR_TITLE: Carbs Linux: (carbslinux) +#+TEXINFO_DIR_DESC: Carbs Linux User Manual +#+MACRO: contid [@@texinfo:@anchor{$1}@@$1] +#+MACRO: sectid $2 @@texinfo:@anchor{$1}@@[$1] + +This is the full documentation of [[][Carbs Linux]], from the details of the +distribution, installation, to the package manager. It is not yet complete. + +* Table of Contents :toc_3_gh:noexport: +- [[#copying][Copying]] +- [[#installation][Installation]] + - [[#preparing-environment][Preparing Environment]] + - [[#download][Download]] + - [[#signature-verification][Signature verification]] + - [[#extracting-the-tarball][Extracting the tarball]] + - [[#obtain-the-chroot-helper][Obtain the chroot helper]] + - [[#chroot][Chroot]] + - [[#setting-up-repositories][Setting up repositories]] + - [[#updating-packages][Updating packages]] + - [[#installing-packages][Installing packages]] + - [[#essential-software][Essential Software]] + - [[#obtaining-the-documentation][Obtaining the documentation]] + - [[#system-configuration][System Configuration]] + - [[#configuring-hostname][Configuring hostname]] + - [[#hosts-file][Hosts file]] + - [[#kernel][Kernel]] + - [[#obtaining-the-kernel-sources][Obtaining the kernel sources]] + - [[#kernel-dependencies][Kernel dependencies]] + - [[#building-the-kernel][Building the kernel]] + - [[#making-your-system-bootable][Making your system bootable]] + - [[#bootloader][Bootloader]] + - [[#init-scripts][Init scripts]] + - [[#fstab][Fstab]] + - [[#post-installation][Post-installation]] + - [[#kiss-repositories][KISS repositories]] +- [[#package-manager][Package Manager]] + - [[#usage][Usage]] + - [[#cpt-alternatives][=cpt-alternatives=]] + - [[#cpt-build][=cpt-build=]] + - [[#cpt-checksum][=cpt-checksum=]] + - [[#cpt-download][=cpt-download=]] + - [[#cpt-install][=cpt-install=]] + - [[#cpt-list][=cpt-list=]] + - [[#cpt-remove][=cpt-remove=]] + - [[#cpt-search][=cpt-search=]] + - [[#cpt-update][=cpt-update=]] + - [[#global-flags][Global Flags]] + - [[#environment-variables][Environment Variables]] + - [[#cpt_compress][=CPT_COMPRESS=]] + - [[#cpt_force][=CPT_FORCE=]] + - [[#cpt_pid][=CPT_PID=]] + - [[#hooks][Hooks]] + - [[#editing-the-build-file-during-pre-build][Editing the =build= file during pre-build]] + - [[#packaging-system][Packaging System]] + - [[#build][=build=]] + - [[#sources][=sources=]] + - [[#checksums][=checksums=]] + - [[#version][=version=]] + - [[#depends][=depends=]] + - [[#post-install][=post-install=]] + - [[#message][=message=]] + - [[#test][=test=]] + - [[#rsync-repositories][Rsync Repositories]] + - [[#setting-up-an-rsync-repository][Setting up an Rsync repository]] +- [[#init-system][Init System]] + - [[#configuring-init][Configuring Init]] + - [[#kernel-command-line][Kernel Command Line]] + - [[#etcinitrcconf-file][=/etc/init/rc.conf= file]] + - [[#init-hooks][Init Hooks]] + - [[#changing-init-program][Changing Init Program]] + - [[#rebooting-after-changing-init][Rebooting after changing init]] +- [[#contribution-guidelines][Contribution Guidelines]] + - [[#conventions][Conventions]] + - [[#shell-conventions][Shell Conventions]] + - [[#repository-conventions][Repository Conventions]] + +* Copying + :PROPERTIES: + :COPYING: t + :END: + +Copyright \copy 2020 Cem Keylan + +#+BEGIN_QUOTE +Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document +under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or +any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no +Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. +A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free +Documentation License." +#+END_QUOTE + +* Installation +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Installing Carbs Linux +:END: + +These are the step-by-step instructions for installing Carbs Linux. + +** Preparing Environment +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Getting ready to chroot +:END: + +To install Carbs Linux, you will need a Live Linux ISO. For that purpose, you +can obtain a Gentoo or Void Linux live image. You can follow their instructions +to boot and setup your network. + +You will need the following programs in order to install Carbs Linux: + +- tar +- wget +- xz +- some form of base utilities (coreutils, sbase, busybox, etc.) + +Rest of these instructions will assume that you have set all of these up, and +will continue on that point. + +*** Download +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Download the root filesystem tarball +:END: + +First, we need to download the rootfs tarball. You can do the following in order +to obtain the rootfs. If you are using an i686 machine, replace the =x86_64= +with =i686=. We are setting this in a URL variable so that we don't have to +write it every time. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE sh + $ wget $URL/carbs-rootfs.tar.xz.sha256 + $ sha256sum -c carbs-rootfs.tar.xz.sha256 +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Signature verification +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Verify the signature of the rootfs tarball +:END: + +It is highly recommended to verify the signature of the tarball. You will need +GPG for this. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ wget $URL/carbs-rootfs.tar.xz.sig + $ gpg --recv-keys FF484BDFEFCEF8FF + $ gpg --verify carbs-rootfs.tar.xz.sig +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Extracting the tarball +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Extracting the root filesystem to the desired location +:END: + +You will need to extract the tarball to your desired location. For partitioning, +you can follow [[][this guide]]. This will assume that you will be mounting your root +partition to =/mnt=. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ mount /dev/sdx1 /mnt + $ tar xf carbs-rootfs.tar.xz -C /mnt +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Obtain the chroot helper +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Download the script to easily chroot into the new filesystem +:END: + +You can obtain the =cpt-chroot= script in order to do a simple chroot into your +new root filesystem. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ wget + $ chmod a+x cpt-chroot +#+END_EXAMPLE + +** Chroot +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Going inside your new system +:END: + +Chroot into Carbs Linux! + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ ./cpt-chroot /mnt +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Setting up repositories +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Basic setup for obtaining repositories +:END: + +Newest tarballs do not come with repositories, so you will need to manually +obtain them, and set your =CPT_PATH= environment variable. Carbs Linux +repositories can either be obtained by =git= or =rsync=. While rsync +repositories are overall faster and smaller, git offers the whole history of the +repository and a means to manipulate your repository as you like it. If you want +to obtain the git repository, you will need to install =git= itself. + +The following guide will assume that you put the repositories into =~/repos/= +directory, but you can put the repositories into any directory you want. So go +ahead and create that directory: + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ mkdir -p $HOME/repos +#+END_EXAMPLE + +**** Obtaining from git + +Carbs Linux git repositories can be found both from the main server and GitHub +(mirror). Here are both their repository links. You can clone any of them. + +- git:// +- + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ git clone git:// $HOME/repos/carbs +#+END_EXAMPLE + +**** Obtaining from rsync + +Carbs Linux rsync repositories live in rsync:// In +order to obtain it, run the following: + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ rsync -avc rsync:// $HOME/repos/carbs +#+END_EXAMPLE + +**** Making the package manager use the repositories + +In your shell's configuration file, or in your =~/.profile= file, add the +following lines: + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + export CPT_PATH='' + CPT_PATH=$CPT_PATH:$HOME/repos/carbs/core + CPT_PATH=$CPT_PATH:$HOME/repos/carbs/extra + CPT_PATH=$CPT_PATH:$HOME/repos/carbs/xorg + CPT_PATH=$CPT_PATH:$HOME/repos/carbs/community + export CPT_PATH +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Updating packages +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Update your system +:END: + +It is good practice to make sure your system is up to date, especially before +building new packages. If there is an update for the package manager you will +need to update twice. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ cpt-update && cpt-update +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Installing packages +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Install new software on your system +:END: + +Since you are operating on a really small base, you might need to build and +install new programs to extend the functionality of your system. In order to +build and install packages new packages in Carbs, you need to execute the +following. "Package" is not actually a package and is given as an example. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ cpt-build package + $ cpt-install package +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Essential Software +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Software you might want to include on your system +:END: + +Here is a list of software that you might want to have on your system. + +*BOOTLOADERS* + +- efibootmgr +- grub + +*FILESYSTEMS* + +- e2fsprogs +- dosfstools +- ntfs-3g + +*NETWORKING* + +- dhcpcd +- wpa_supplicant + +*TEXT EDITORS* + +- nano +- vim +- neatvi +- emacs +- emacs-nox (terminal-only version of emacs) + +*USER SHELLS* + +- bash +- zsh +- oksh +- rc + +*POSIX BASE UTILITIES* + +- busybox +- sbase +- coreutils + +*DOCUMENTATION* + +- carbs-docs +- man-pages +- man-pages-posix + +*** Obtaining the documentation +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Install documentation for offline use (optional) +:END: + +All the documentation for Carbs Linux can be found on a single info manual to be +viewed offline. You can obtain texinfo or the info (standalone) package in order +to view the documentation. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + Install the documentation. + $ cpt b carbs-docs && cpt i carbs-docs + + Install either texinfo or the info package. We will be installing standalone info + as it doesn't need perl. + $ cpt b info && cpt i info + + You can then run info and navigate through the documentation. + $ info carbslinux +#+END_EXAMPLE + +** System Configuration +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Customizing your system for personal use +:END: + +After you have finished installing some extra packages, you can configure your +system to your liking. + +*** Configuring hostname +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Setting up system hostname (recommended) +:END: + +You might want to add a hostname, especially in a networked environment. Your +hostname will default to 'carbslinux' unless you set this. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ echo your-hostname > /etc/hostname +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Hosts file +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Setting up hosts file for networking (optional) +:END: + +You can edit your /etc/hosts file, which is the static lookup table for host +names. By default, there are two entries for localhost which are OKAY. You can +replace the 'localhost' part of these entries to your hostname. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + localhost.localdomain localhost + ::1 localhost.localdomain localhost ip6-localhost +#+END_EXAMPLE + +** Kernel +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Compiling your own kernel +:END: + +Kernel isn't managed under the main repositories, even though you could package +one for your personal use. Here is an [[][example kernel package]], which you will +need to reconfigure for your specific setup if you want to make use of it. + +*** Obtaining the kernel sources +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Downloading the Linux source code +:END: + +You can visit the [[]] website to choose a kernel that you want +to install. Though only the latest stable and longterm (LTS) versions are +supported. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + Download the kernel and extract it + $ wget + $ tar xf linux-5.9.1.tar.xz + + Change directory into the kernel sources + $ cd linux-5.9.1 +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Kernel dependencies +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Requirements for building the kernel +:END: + +In order to compile the kernel you will need to install some dependencies. You +will need =libelf= to compile the kernel. If you want to configure using the +menu interface you will also need =ncurses=. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + The package manager asks to install if you are building more than one package, + so no need to run 'cpt i ...' + $ cpt b libelf ncurses +#+END_EXAMPLE + +In the vanilla kernel sources, you need perl to compile the kernel, but it can +be easily patched out. You will need to apply the following patch. Patch was +written by [[][E5ten]]. You will need to obtain and apply the patch in the kernel +source directory. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ wget + $ patch -p1 < kernel-no-perl.patch +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Building the kernel +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Configure and compile the kernel +:END: + +Next step is configuring and building the kernel. You can check Gentoo's +[[][kernel configuration guide]] to learn more about the matter. Overall, Gentoo Wiki +is a good place to learn about configuration according to your hardware. The +following will assume a monolithic kernel. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ make menuconfig + $ make + $ install -Dm755 $(make -s image_name) /boot/vmlinuz-linux +#+END_EXAMPLE + +** Making your system bootable +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Installing bootloader and boot scripts +:END: + +In order to be able to boot your fresh system, wou will need an init-daemon, +init-scripts and a bootloader. The init daemon is already provided by busybox, +but you can optionally change it. + +*** Bootloader +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Install a bootloader for your system +:END: + +In the main repository, there is efibootmgr and grub to serve as bootloaders. +efibootmgr can be used as a standalone bootloader, or can be used to install +grub in a UEFI environment. efibootmgr is needed unless you are using a device +without UEFI support (or you really want to use BIOS for a reason). + +**** GRUB BIOS installation + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ cpt b grub && cpt i grub + $ grub-install --target=i386-pc /dev/sdX + $ grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg +#+END_EXAMPLE + +**** GRUB UEFI installation + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ cpt b efibootmgr && cpt i efibootmgr + $ cpt b grub && cpt i grub + + $ grub-install --target=x86_64-efi \ + --efi-directory=esp \ + --bootloader-id=CarbsLinux + + $ grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Init scripts +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Install init scripts for your system +:END: + +Only thing left to do is installing the init-scripts, and now you are almost +ready to boot your system! + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ cpt b carbs-init && cpt i carbs-init +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Fstab +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Generating fstab +:END: + +You can now manually edit your fstab entry, or you can use the genfstab tool. +If you want to use the tool, exit the chroot and run the following: + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ wget + $ chmod +x genfstab + $ ./genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab +#+END_EXAMPLE + +** Post-installation +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Post-installation tasks +:END: + +The base installation is now complete, you can now fine tune your system +according to your needs. Rest of these instructions are completely optional. +You can check the rest of the documentation to learn more about the system. + +*** KISS repositories +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Acquire kiss repositories +:END: + +While not 100% compatible with cpt, you can use kiss repositories in your +system the same way you are using the distribution repositories. Here is an +example for the KISS Linux Community repository. + +* Package Manager +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Carbs Packaging Tools +:END: + +Carbs Linux uses its own package managing toolchain named =cpt=. It is a fork of +the [[][kiss]] package manager. Unlike =kiss=, however, its main goal is being easily +extendable. Instead of being a single file package manager, it revolves around +the shell library =cpt-lib=, and many tools that wrap around it. + +The full documentation of =cpt-lib= is incomplete, but will be added to the +[[][package manager's own source]]. + +** Usage +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Basic usage of Carbs Packaging Tools +:END: + +=cpt= is formed of many tools combined in a single environment, similar to +=git=. When you run =cpt= without any arguments, it will show all available +tools and their explanations. Here is an example call with extra scripts on my +system: + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + -> Carbs Packaging Tool + -> add Commit the current directory as a new package + -> alternatives List and swap to alternatives + -> build Build a package + -> bump Commit the current directory as a version bump + -> cargo-urlgen Create static cargo sources for Rust packages + -> cargolock-urlgen Convert the given Cargo.lock file to sources + -> cat Concatanate package files in the installed package database + -> changelog Print the git log of the specific package + -> chbuild Create/destroy temporary chroots + -> checkmissing Verify package manifests + -> checksum Generate checksums + -> chroot Enter a chroot + -> commit Commit a package without the prefix of 'package:' + -> depends Display a package's dependencies + -> download Download sources for the given package + -> exec Execute a command inside the alternatives system + -> export Turn an installed package into a CPT tarball + -> fork Fork a package to the current directory + -> getchoice Prints the full path to a file in the alternatives system. + -> install Install a package + -> link Link a forked package's files to the other repository + -> list List installed packages + -> maintainer Find the maintainer of a package + -> manifest Display all files owned by a package + -> manifest-tree Display all files owned by a package with a tree view + -> new Create a boilerplate CPT package + -> orphans List orphaned packages + -> owns Check which package owns a file + -> rel Bump the release number of a package + -> remove Remove a package + -> repodepends Display a package's dependencies in the repository + -> reporevdepends Display packages on the repository which depend on package + -> reset Remove all packages except for the base + -> revdepends Display packages which depend on package + -> search Search for a package + -> size Show the size on disk for a package + -> source Extract sources of a given package to the current directory + -> update Check for updates +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** =cpt-alternatives= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: List and swap to alternatives +:END: + +You can list and swap to alternatives using =cpt-alternatives=, or +=cpt a= for short. When run without alternatives, it will list +alternatives. It can read from standard input if =-= is given as an +argument. + +**** Examples + +List alternatives. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ cpt-alternatives + ncurses /usr/bin/clear + ncurses /usr/bin/reset +#+END_EXAMPLE + +Swap to =clear= from =ncurses=. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ cpt-alternatives ncurses /usr/bin/clear + -> Swapping '/usr/bin/clear' from 'busybox' to 'ncurses' +#+END_EXAMPLE + +Swap in bulk (all of =sbase=). + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ cpt a | grep ^sbase | cpt a - +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** =cpt-build= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Build a package +:END: + +=cpt-build= will build given packages and their dependencies. If multiple +packages are specified, it will ask to install the packages as well. + +| Flags | Explanation | +|----------------+--------------| +| =-t=, =--test= | Run tests | + +*** =cpt-checksum= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Generate checksums +:END: + +=cpt-checksum= will generate a =checksums= file from the package's sources. + +*** =cpt-download= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Download sources for the given package +:END: + +=cpt-download= will download the sources of a package. + +*** =cpt-install= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Install a package +:END: + +=cpt-install= will install given packages. + +*** =cpt-list= + +When called without arguments, =cpt-list= will print all installed +packages. You can add package names as arguments to check whether they are +installed or not. In success, =cpt-list= will exit with status 0 if all +given packages are installed, it will return 1 if any of the given packages +aren't installed. + +| Flags | Explanation | +|-------------------+----------------------------------------| +| =-c=, =--current= | Use the current directory as a package | + +*** =cpt-remove= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Remove a package +:END: + +=cpt-remove= will remove given packages. + +*** =cpt-search= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Search for a package +:END: + +=cpt-search= will search for packages, it accepts regular expressions as well. + +| Flags | Explanation | +|------------------+-------------------------------------------| +| =-s=, =--single= | Only show the first instance of a package | + + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ cpt-search 'alsa-*' + /var/db/cpt/repo/extra/alsa-lib + /var/db/cpt/repo/extra/alsa-utils + /var/db/cpt/installed/alsa-lib + /var/db/cpt/installed/alsa-utils + + $ cpt-search emacs + /home/cem/repos/main/community/emacs + /home/cem/repos/kiss-community/community/emacs + /var/db/cpt/installed/emacs + + $ cpt-search --single emacs + /home/cem/repos/main/community/emacs +#+END_EXAMPLE + + +*** =cpt-update= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Check for updates +:END: + +=cpt-update= will update the packages on your system. It fetches remote +repositories, and builds, and installs packages that have versions different +from the ones installed on the system. It doesn't check if the version string +is actually higher, it only checks whether they differ. + +| Flags | Explanation | +|----------------------+--------------------------------------| +| =-d=, =--download= | Only download updatable packages | +| =-n=, =--no-fetch= | Do not update remote repositories | +| =-o=, =--only-fetch= | Only fetch the repositories and exit | + + +*** Global Flags +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Flags that work globally on some cpt utilities +:END: + +| Flags | Explanation | +|---------------------+----------------------------------| +| =-f=, =--force= | Force operation, [[=CPT_FORCE=][See =CPT_FORCE=]] | +| =-y=, =--no-prompt= | Do not prompt for confirmation | +| =-root CPT_ROOT= | Use an alternate root directory | +| =-h=, =--help= | Show this help message | +| =-v=, =--version= | Print version information | + +** Environment Variables +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Change the behaviour of cpt through environment configuration +:END: + +Since there is no configuration file for cpt, the package manager is configured +through environment variables. These can be set per operation, or be set to your +shell configuration or =~/.profile=. Here are the environment variables that +alter the behaviour of =cpt=: + +| ENVIRONMENT VALUE | Effects | +|-------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------| +| =CPT_PATH= | Set the locations of your repositories. It is similar to the =PATH= variable. | +| =XDG_CACHE_HOME= | Unless this is set, the =~/.cache= directory will be used instead. | +| =CPT_CACHE= | The cache directory for =cpt=. Default: =$XDG_CACHE_HOME/cpt= | +| =CPT_CHOICE= | If this is set to 0, a package installation will be aborted on conflicts. | +| =CPT_COMPRESS= | Program used to compress package tarballs. [[=CPT_COMPRESS=][See =CPT_COMPRESS=]] | +| =CPT_DEBUG= | If set to 1, temporary directories will not be removed after the operation. | +| =CPT_FETCH= | If set to 0, =cpt-update= will not fetch repositories. | +| =CPT_FORCE= | [[=CPT_FORCE=][See =CPT_FORCE=]] | +| =CPT_HOOK= | Location for the hook file. | +| =CPT_KEEPLOG= | If set to 1, cpt will keep logs regardless of operation success. | +| =CPT_PID= | [[=CPT_PID=][See =CPT_PID=]] | +| =CPT_PROMPT0= | If set to 0, =cpt= will not prompt you for anything. | +| =CPT_ROOT= | If this variable is set, =cpt= will assume this as the system root. | +| =CPT_TEST= | If set to 1, =cpt-build= will run tests whenever available. | +| =CPT_TMPDIR= | The directory to create the temporary directories. | + + +*** =CPT_COMPRESS= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Compression tool to use in cpt +:END: + +When setting the =CPT_COMPRESS= value, you should set the name of the default +suffixes for the program. Available values are: + +- =gz= +- =zst= +- =bz2= +- =xz= + +Defaults to =gz=. + +*** =CPT_FORCE= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Force operations on cpt +:END: + +If this is set to 1, some of the =cpt= tools will continue regardless of +errors or skip certain checks. Here are some examples: + +- =cpt-install= will install a package without verifying its manifest. +- =cpt-install= will install a package even when there are missing dependencies. +- =cpt-remove= will remove packages even when there are other packages that + depend on the current package. + +Defaults to 0. + +*** =CPT_PID= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Set reproducible temporary directories +:END: + +If this variable is set, the temporary files will be created with this variable +as the suffix, instead of the PID of the =cpt= process. The advantage is that +you can know exactly where the build directory is located, while the +disadvantage is that there will be issues with multiple operations at the same +time. So the best way to use this variable is during one-time =cpt= calls. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + CPT_PID=mesa cpt b mesa +#+END_EXAMPLE + +By running the above, you will know that the created build directories will end +with the =*-mesa= suffix. + +** Hooks +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Use hooks to customize the package manager operations +:END: + +Hooks can be used in order to change the runtime behaviour of the package manager. +There are a variety of package hooks, mostly self explanatory: + +- pre-build +- post-build +- build-fail +- pre-test +- test-fail +- pre-install +- post-install +- pre-remove +- post-remove +- pre-fetch +- post-fetch +- post-package + +In order to use hooks, you will need to set the =CPT_HOOK= variable pointing to +your hook file. Your hook file *MUST* be a POSIX shell script as its contents +are sourced by the package manager. + +The hook is given 3 variables when it is executed. Those are: + +| Variable | Explanation | +|----------+--------------------------------------------------------------| +| =$TYPE= | The type of the hook, (=pre-build=, =post-build=, etc.) | +| =$PKG= | The package that =cpt= is currently working on. Can be null. | +| =$DEST= | The destination of the operation. Can be null. | + +*** Editing the =build= file during pre-build +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Modify a package build with your hooks +:END: + +You can edit the =build= file during pre-build. The file is copied from the +repository to the build directory named as You can use =sed= or +any other tool to edit the build file. After the build is complete, a =diff= +file will be placed to the package database named as =build.diff=. Here is an +example =build= file manipulation during the pre-build hook. + +#+BEGIN_SRC sh + cat <<EOF> .build.cpt + #!/bin/sh -e + + for patch in bash50-0??; do + patch -p0 < "\$patch" + done + + export LDFLAGS=-static + + ./configure \ + --prefix=/usr \ + --without-bash-malloc \ + --disable-nls + + export MAKEFLAGS="TERMCAP_LIB=/usr/lib/libncursesw.a $MAKEFLAGS" + + make + make DESTDIR="\$1" install + + ln -s bash "\$1/usr/bin/sh" + EOF +#+END_SRC + +** Packaging System +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: More detail on creating packages +:END: + +A package is formed of several files, these are: + +- =build= +- =sources= +- =checksums= +- =version= +- =depends= +- =post-install= +- =message= +- =test= + +Any other file can be added to the package directory at the discretion of the +package maintainer. Everything in the package directory will also be added to the +package database that is located on =/var/db/cpt/installed=. These can be +patches, configuration files, etc. + +*** =build= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: The build script +:END: + +Typically =build= files are shell scripts that run commands to prepare the source +code to be installed on the target system. Even though we will be assuming that +the =build= file is a POSIX shell script (for portability's sake), =build= +files can be any executable program from binary programs to =perl= scripts. + +The contents of a build script do not need to follow a certain rule for the +package manager, except for the fact that the user needs the permission to +execute the file. + +An important advice is to append an '-e' to the shebang (#!/bin/sh -e) so that +the build script exits on compilation error. + +Build is run with three arguments (=$#=) + +- Location of the package directory (DESTDIR) +- Package version +- System architecture + +*** =sources= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: The file containing package sources +:END: + +=sources= file is a list of files and sources that will be put to the build +directory during the build process. Those can be remote sources (such as tarballs), +git repositories, and files that reside on the package directory. + +The syntax is pretty simple for the =soures= file; =src dest=. The =dest= +parameter is optional. It is the directory that the source will be placed in. +Here is the =sources= file for the =gst-plugins= package: + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + good + bad + ugly + libav +#+END_EXAMPLE + +This file is read from the package manager as space seperated. Files that begin +with a =#= comment are ignored. The first value points to the location of the +source. + +If it starts with a protcol url, (such as ftp:// http:// https://) it will be +downloaded with =curl=. + +If the source is a git repository, it shall be prefixed with a =git+= git(1) will +be used to do a shallow clone of the repository. If the commit is suffixed by a +history pointer, git will checkout the relevant revision. So, + +- =git+git:// :: will checkout the tag named "v1.2.3" +- =git+git:// :: will checkout the branch named "development" +- =git+git:// :: will checkout the commit named "1a314s87" + +Other files are assumed to be residing in the package directory. They should be +added with their paths relative to the package directory. + +*** =checksums= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: The file containing sha256sum of the sources +:END: + +checksums file is generated by the =cpt c pkg= command. It is generated +according to the order of the sources file. That's why you shouldn't be editing +it manually. The checksums file is created with the digests of the files using +the sha256 algorithm. + +*** =version= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: The file containing the version and the release numbers of a package +:END: + +The version file includes the version of the software and the release number of +of the package on a space seperated format. The contents of the file should look +like below. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + 1.3.2 1 +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** =depends= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: The file containing the dependencies of a package +:END: + +This is a list of dependencies that must be installed before a package build. You +can append "make" after a dependency to mark a package is only required during +the build process of a package. Packages marked as a make dependency can be +removed after the build. There are also "test" dependencies. These dependencies +are only installed if either the =CPT_TEST= is set to 1, or the build is run +with the =-t= or =--test= options. So, a package package could have +the following =depends= file: + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + linux-headers make + python test + zlib +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** =post-install= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: The post-installation script +:END: + +=post-install= files have the same requirements as the build script. They +will be run after the package is installed as root (or as the user if the user +has write permissions on =CPT_ROOT=). + +*** =message= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: The post-installation message to be displayed +:END: + +This plaintext file will be outputted with =cat= after every package is +installed. + +*** =test= +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: The test script for a package +:END: + +Test files are mainly for the repository maintainer to test the packages, and +will only run if the user has the =CPT_TEST= variable set, or the build is +run with the =-t= or =--test= options. This script is run on the +build directory. It is run right after the build script is finished. + +** Rsync Repositories +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Information on using or creating rsync repositories +:END: + +Rsync repositories are simple to serve and simple to use. In the repository +directory, there needs to be a =.rsync= file that points to the remote of the +repository. This is used in order to fetch changes from the upstream. =.rsync= +file looks like this for the core repository: + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + rsync:// +#+END_EXAMPLE + +Rsync repositories have some few distinctions when it comes to fetching them. +They can be either synced individually or as a "root". There are 2 important +files, those are =.rsync= and =.rsync_root=. Here is the Carbs Linux +rsync repository structure. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + / + ----------------- + | | + .rsync core/ + ---------------- + | | + .rsync .rsync_root +#+END_EXAMPLE + +Unlike git repositories, they don't have a defined "root" directory. This is +both an advantage and a disadvantage. This way, we can sync individual +repositories, but that also means we need extra files to define root directories +and repository locations. Here is the content for each of these files: + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + /.rsync: rsync:// + /core/.rsync: rsync:// + /core/.rsync_root: .. +#+END_EXAMPLE + +The =.rsync_root= file on the core repository points to the upper directory. +If a =.rsync= file exists on the upper directory, this means that is the whole +repository and will sync the entire repository instead of each individual repository. + +If the upper directory doesn't have this =.rsync= file, this means that this +is an individual repository, and the package manager will fetch accordingly. + +*** Setting up an Rsync repository +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Set up a repository for distribution +:END: + +Carbs Linux repositories automatically sync from the git repostitories and serve +it through the rsync daemon. Here is a sample shell script that I use in order to +sync repositories. Feel free to customize for your own use. + +#+BEGIN_SRC sh + #!/bin/sh + HOSTNAME="rsync://" + GITDIR="/pub/git/repo" + SHAREDIR="/pub/share/repo" + git -C "$GITDIR" pull + + rsync -avcC --delete --include=core --exclude=.rsync,.rsync_root "$GITDIR/." "$SHAREDIR" + + printf '%s\n' "$HOSTNAME" > "$GITDIR/.rsync" + for dir in "$GITDIR/"*; do + [ -d "$dir" ] || continue + [ -f "$dir/.rsync" ] || + printf '%s/%s\n' "$HOSTNAME" "${dir##*/}" > "$dir/.rsync" + printf '..\n' > "$dir/.rsync_root" + done +#+END_SRC + +You can then create an *rsync* user for serving the repositories. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ adduser -SD rsync +#+END_EXAMPLE + +Create =/etc/rsyncd.conf= and a service configuration as well. + + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + uid = rsync + gid = rsync + address = + max connections = 10 + use chroot = yes + + [repo] + path = /pub/share/repo + comment = My repository +#+END_EXAMPLE + +Create a service file at =/etc/sv/rsync/run= (runit): + +#+BEGIN_SRC sh + #!/bin/sh -e + exec rsync --daemon --no-detach +#+END_SRC + +* Init System +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Configure the init system +:END: + +Carbs Linux init scripts are run by the init daemon (=busybox= by default) on +boot and shutdown processes. It also provides its own halting program named +shalt. This provides a portable method that doesn't rely on non-POSIX external +programs. + +** Configuring Init +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Ways to configure the init system +:END: + +There are three ways you can change the behaviour of the init system. Those are: + +- Kernel Command Line +- =/etc/init/rc.conf= file +- Init Hooks + +*** Kernel Command Line +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Configure init through the boot parameters +:END: + +On GRUB, you can edit the kernel command line parameters, which will be parsed +as variables on the init system. Not all of the parameters will be acted upon, +but all of them will be set as variables on the init script. For example an +example command line, and how it is interpreted. + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + BOOT_IMAGE=/boot/vmlinuz root=/dev/sda2 rw loglevel=3 quiet +#+END_EXAMPLE + +This command line will be parsed to set the following variables: + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + BOOT_IMAGE=/boot/vmlinuz + root=/dev/sda2 + rw=1 + loglevel=3 + quiet=1 +#+END_EXAMPLE + +Some of these variables, such as =rw=/=ro=, =loglevel=, and =quiet=, will be +used by the init system to change the behaviour of the startup. + +*** =/etc/init/rc.conf= file +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Configure init through the configuration file +:END: + +However, the kernel command line isn't the only place to set your boot +parameters. You can specify variables here as well, although note that the +kernel command line always gets the priority for these variables since they can +be set just before boot. + +*** Init Hooks +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Configure init through hooks +:END: + +Init hooks are for custom personal commands that the user may want to add to +alter their boot. These can be used to load kernel modules, modify interfaces, +and lot more. Those hooks are added to the =/etc/init= directory with the +hook name as the suffix. For example, a boot script will be placed as +=/etc/init/my-hook.boot=. Currently, there are 4 hooks that the user can use. + +- early-boot :: Run after pseudo-filesystems are mounted. +- boot :: Run before the boot stage is completed. +- pre.shutdown :: Run first when shutting down. +- umount :: Run just before filesystems are unmounted. +- post.shutdown :: Run just before the system is halted. + +** Changing Init Program +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Replace the default busybox init with something new +:END: + +By default, Carbs Linux comes preinstalled with =busybox-init=, but this can +easily be replaced without any issues. Currently, available init systems are: + +- =sinit= +- =busybox= +- =runit= +- =shinit= + +This example is for runit, but it will work with all init systems packaged in the +distribution repositories. [[=cpt-alternatives=][See =cpt-alternatives=]] + +#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + $ cpt a runit /usr/bin/init + $ cpt a runit /usr/bin/poweroff + $ cpt a runit /usr/bin/reboot +#+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Rebooting after changing init +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Ways to reboot after replacing the init system +:END: + +After switching init systems, your running init system may not accept the +new poweroff commands. You will need to reboot/poweroff using the running init's +utilities for the new utilities to work. These commands are for the init system +currently running on your system and not the one you are switching to. + +| Program | Command | +|--------------+------------------| +| busybox | =busybox reboot= | +| runit | =runit-init 6= | +| shinit/sinit | =kill -s INT 1= | + +* Contribution Guidelines +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Contribute to Carbs Linux +:END: + +Thanks for taking your time to contribute! To maintain stylistic behaviour +throughout the repositories, one must adhere to these conventions. Exceptions +and changes may occur with good reasoning. + +** Conventions +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Conventions of the distribution +:END: + +#+TEXINFO: @macro contid{id} +#+TEXINFO: [@anchor{\id\}\id\] +#+TEXINFO: @end macro + +#+TEXINFO: @macro sectid{id, sect} +#+TEXINFO: @strong{@contid{\id\} \sect\} +#+TEXINFO: @end macro + +- {{{contid(0010)}}} :: Try to keep the file readable. + - {{{contid(0011)}}} :: Characters on a line shouldn't exceed 100 characters. + - {{{contid(0012)}}} :: Make sure you don't have code commented out during + commit. Uncomment them or remove them completely. + - {{{contid(0013)}}} :: Do not add comments following the code, add them to the + top of the code. It makes it harder to read, and lines longer. Here is an example: + + #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + # Good way of commenting. + your code goes here + + your code goes here # Avoid this way of commenting. + #+END_EXAMPLE + +*** Shell Conventions +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Conventions for shell scripts +:END: + +Shell is central to Carbs Linux projects. Most of the tools and packages are +written in POSIX sh. + +- {{{contid(1010)}}} :: Use 4 spaces for indentation, don't use tabs. +- {{{contid(1020)}}} :: Make sure you don't use bash-specific code. +- {{{contid(1030)}}} :: Make sure you lint your code with =shellcheck= and if + you are new to POSIX sh, use =checkbashisms=. +- {{{contid(1040)}}} :: Don't spawn new processes if you don't absolutely need + to, especially during string manipulation. + - {{{contid(1041)}}} :: Never use a program for text manupilation that isn't + defined in the POSIX standard. This includes =gawk= and =perl=. + - {{{contid(1042)}}} :: Instead of ~$(basename $file)~, use ~${file##*}~. + - {{{contid(1043)}}} :: Instead of ~$(dirname $file)~, use ~${file%/*}~. + + #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE + # This is the same thing as basename /path/to/test.asc .asc + + $ file=/path/to/test.asc file=${file##*/} file=${file%.asc} + $ echo $file + test + #+END_EXAMPLE +- {{{contid(1050)}}} :: Instead of backticks, use ~$(..)~. + +*** Repository Conventions +:PROPERTIES: +:DESCRIPTION: Conventions for repository build scripts +:END: + +Repository conventions are important in order to ensure every package resemble +themselves. Here are the things to keep in mind: + +- {{{contid(2010)}}} :: Prefer tarballs over git packages unless there is a + sensible reason. Here are some: + - Every patch is a new release. (See [[][vim]]) + - There are no releases. (See [[][sbase]]) + - Following a development branch. + - There has been a long time since the latest release, but upstream is far + ahead. +- {{{contid(2020)}}} :: Prefer sources without a dependency to =automake=. There + are usually distribution tarballs that are =autoconf='ed. Don't submit tarballs + with an automake dependency unless you are =sure= there is no alternative. +- {{{contid(2030)}}} :: Avoid these packages: + - dbus :: Usually can be disabled by ~--disable-dbus~. + - gettext :: Usually can be disabled by ~--disable-nls~. +- {{{contid(2040)}}} :: + - Always install a package to the =/usr= prefix. + - All binaries should go to =/usr/bin=, not =/usr/sbin= or any other directory. + - All libraries should go to =/usr/lib=. +- {{{contid(2050)}}} :: All build files on the repository should be a POSIX + shell script, and must start with ~#!/bin/sh -e~. + +The next section is about package templates that should be used in order to +ensure stylistic consistency. Note that the option configurations shouldn't be +taken literally, they are meant as examples. + +**** {{{sectid(2210, Make)}}} + +#+BEGIN_SRC sh + #!/bin/sh -e + + make + make DESTDIR="$1" PREFIX=/usr install +#+END_SRC + +**** {{{sectid(2211, Configure/Make)}}} + +#+BEGIN_SRC sh + #!/bin/sh -e + + ./configure \ + --prefix=/usr \ + --disable-option \ + --enable-option + + make + make DESTDIR="$1" install +#+END_SRC + +**** {{{sectid(2212, Autoconf/Automake)}}} + +#+TEXINFO: @xref{2020} + +#+BEGIN_SRC sh + #!/bin/sh -e + + autoreconf -fi + + ./configure \ + --prefix=/usr \ + --disable-option \ + --enable-option + + make + make DESTDIR="$1" install +#+END_SRC + +**** {{{sectid(2220, Meson)}}} + +#+BEGIN_SRC sh + #!/bin/sh -e + + export DESTDIR=$1 + + meson \ + --prefix=/usr \ + -Doption=false \ + -Doption2=true \ + . output + + ninja -C output + ninja -C output install +#+END_SRC + +**** {{{sectid(2230, Cmake)}}} + +#+BEGIN_SRC sh + #!/bin/sh -e + + export DESTDIR=$1 + + cmake -B build \ + -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr \ + -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release \ + -DOPTION=ON + + cmake --build build + cmake --install build +#+END_SRC + +**** {{{sectid(2240, Go)}}} + +#+BEGIN_SRC sh + #!/bin/sh -e + + export GOPATH=$PWD/gopath + trap "go clean -modcache" EXIT INT + go mod vendor + + go build + install -Dm755 program "$1/usr/bin/program" +#+END_SRC + +**** {{{sectid(2241, Python)}}} + +#+BEGIN_SRC sh + #!/bin/sh -e + + python build + python install --prefix=/usr --root="$1" +#+END_SRC